Congenital anomaly are structural problems which can occur in the heart's chambers, valves or blood vessels either due to abnormality in the looping of the heart, malformation of the septa and valves as well as birth defect which is present at the time of birth either due to non closure of fossa ovalis or non obliteration of the ductus vessels . Most cases presented are surgically treated and fewer are life-threatening, either immediately to the newborn over time.
Ventricular septal defects, and patent ductus arteriosus are reported to be uncommon causes of death or severe distress in the first month of life.Most septal defect can lead to heart failure, high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), infection of the heart (endocarditis), irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and delayed growth.
Malformation of the inferior veno cava is due to abnormalies from the posterior cardinal vein and its conterpacts. Malformation or defects of IVc and SVc are rare. Picture illustration present showing the point of defect and malformations.